About Citing Images & Art
There are no guidelines for paintings, sculptures, or more complicated installations.
A good reference contains enough information to lead your reader to the source you used, as concisely as possible.
At a minimum, this should include the artist’s name, year(s) of fabrication, title of the work, any other necessary or relevant information (such as the medium), and the location of the work.
IMAGES, FIGURES AND TABLES
It is important to note that the guidelines available in the APA manual are relatively limited. We have analysed the guidelines closely, contacted the APA Style Editor and consulted the APA blog to provide the following guidance.
In this guide the word figure refers to all images including, Photographs, Paintings, Drawings, Charts, Diagrams, Graphs, Tables, etc
Any image used in your assignment requires a caption. If the image is not your own work it also requires an intext citation to the original source.
A caption should include
- The word Figure with a capital letter
- A number (from 1, in numerical order)
- A title for the figure or brief description of the work
- An in text citation for the reference of the source (if not your own work), which includes the Author(s), date and page number for the source, i.e. (Smith, 2010, p.13)
If you got the image from
- A BOOK, reference it as you would a quotation from a book
- A JOURNAL, reference as you would a quotation from a journal
- A WEB PAGE, reference it as you would a quotation from a web page
Citing Images: Basic Guidelines
Not only must you attend to copyright levels, you must find information that is often hidden. Use these points as basic guidelines when citing images in your assignments, papers, and presentations:
- Use consistent and and sequential figure numbering throughout your work, usually abbreviated as "Fig. 1" for example.
- Include artist's name (lastname, firstname), date (in parentheses), title of work, and work type (in brackets).
- Medium and measurements and institution which houses the work may be included after the work type.
- Include the source from which the image came
- For books, start with "From" followed by an italicized title, page number in parentheses, "by" the author, followed by date and publication information
- For electronic resources, start with "Retrieved" and include retrieval date (month day, year) and "from: " followed by the URL.
- Be consistent with caption display choices throughout your paper or slideshow.
Image scanned from a book reproduced in a text
Fig. 1. Neel, Alice (1975) Nancy and the Rubber Plant, [painting], oil on canvas,
203.4 x 91.4 cm. From Alice Neel (pg. 144) edited by Ann Temkin, 2000,
New York: Harry N. Abrams.
Image etc. taken from a book source
Figure 1. Social distances of animals (Fowler, 2008, p. 13)
Fowler, M. Restraint and handing of wild and domestic animals
Ames, IA: Wiley Blackwell.
Image taken from a journal
Figure 2. Male holotye of Hypsiboas gladiator. (Kholer et al., 2010, p. 584).
Kohler, J., Koscinski, D., Padial, J. M., Chaparro, J. C., Handford, P., Lougheed, S. C.,
& Riva, I. (2010). Systematics of Andean gladiator frogs of the Hypsiboas; pulchellus
species groug (Annuar, Hylidae). Zoologica Scripta, 39(6), 572-590.
Image taken from the internet
Figure 3. Fantail vector (McMillan, 2009).
McMillan, T. (2009). Fantail vector. Retrieved from http://www.kiwiwise.co.nz/
The Online Writing Lab at Purdue University offers an online resource which can be used in some cases. However, it does not include everything required for citing sources in one place.
The APA citation style does not cover Canadian government sources, and has only a limited section on American government resources.
Please refer to the staff at the Library Reference Desk for clarification when citing Canadian government sources.