A. One Author or EditorB. Two Authors or EditorsC. Three to Five Authors or EditorsD. Chapter in an Edited Book or TextbookE. Entry in a dictionary or encyclopediaF. No AuthorG. E-BookH. Edition other than the FirstI. TranslationJ. Government Publication
A. Journal Article with One AuthorB. Journal Article with Two AuthorsC. Journal Article with 3 - 6 AuthorsD. Journal Article with more than 7 authorsE. Magazine ArticleF. Newspaper ArticleG. Article from a DatabaseH. Google Scholar
A. Basic Web PageB. University / College WebpageC. No AuthorD. Blog postE. Online Reference EntryF. Online Government DocumentG. Document from a WebsiteH. Wikis
A. Motion PictureB. YouTube VideoC. Podcast
A. Electronic ImageB. FiguresC. Photographs and Maps
A. InterviewB. EmailC. Religious and Classical WorksD. Secondary SourcesE. Lectures / Course MaterialsF. Archival WorksG. Tweets & FacebookH. Personal Communication
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Last Updated: Jun 9, 2017 URL: http://cotr.libguides.com/apa Print Guide RSS Updates

G. E-Book Print Page

Citing eBooks

In general, you cite an eBook just as you would the original printed book, but include also the database or website from which you retrieved the eBook.

You will find a general format and an example of each type of resource throughout this guide:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase)

Where you have presented your version of the ideas of an author using your own words you must insert a citation.  For more tips on paraphrasing see The OWL at Purdue.

In-Text Citation (Quotation) 

After you have used a direct quote within your work you must insert a citation. 


Complete citations included at the end of your paper give readers information about your sources allowing those readers to find those resources.

Each citation in the reference list must refer to in-text citations you used in your paper.

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the manual.

NOTE: when creating your reference list at the end of your paper pay attention to:

  • the spacing after periods and colons
  • capitalization
  • italicization
  • hanging indentation
  • abbreviations for volume, issue, month, etc

E-Book (p. 203)

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)


Editor last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Ed.). OR Author Surname, First

Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of work [Source].

Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx

Example (e-book)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Scrinis, 2013)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Scrinis, 2013, p. 34)


Scrinis, G. (2005). Nutritionism: The science and politics of dietary advice [Adobe Digital Editions version]. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=619708&site=ehost-live

When using an entry from a subscription (library database or e-book collection) encyclopedia or dictionary, follow this format:


Definition. Entry n. or v. (Year of publication). In Title of online dictionary (edition if applicable.). Retrieved from HTTP:// publishers URL on the Internet.

For papers submitted for coursework, many instructor's request the URL to the entry.  Ask your instructor which they prefer.


cascade, n. (2015). In OED Online. Oxford University Press, Retrieved from http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/28381?rskey=5vYMBB&result=1&isAdvanced=false#eid


DOIs (pp. 188-192)

If a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is listed on either a print or an electronic source it is included in the reference in place of the URL or database name. A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that is used to identify a certain source (typically journal articles).   

Example: doi:10.1080/14622200410001676305

Learn More

The Online Writing Lab at Purdue University offers an online resource which can be used in some cases.  However, it does not include everything required for citing sources in one place.

The APA citation style does not cover Canadian government sources, and has only a limited section on American government resources.

Please refer to the staff at the Library Reference Desk for clarification when citing Canadian government sources.


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