About Literature Cited List
General Principles for Formatting End References
In the C-S and C-N systems, the general sequence of information in a reference is author name, title, and additional items (including year of publication).
In the N-Y system, author names are followed by the year of publication; all the other items then follow in the same sequence (except for the year).
Author names with initials are recommended for reference lists that also include references to journal articles, for which names with initials are preferred. When there are 2-10 authors, all should be named; if more than 10 authors, list the first 10 followed by “and others”.
Note: throughout CSE style, no commas are used to offset the author's last name from his or her initials, no space separates the first and middle initial, and periods do not, in general, follow initials.
Note: in CSE style, titles of periodicals (newspapers, journals, magazines) are capitalized as they normally are; book titles and article titles have only the first word of the title (and of any subtitles), as well as proper nouns, capitalized. Obvious exceptions are capitalized abbreviations and symbols (e.g., HIV-1, DDAVP, pH).
Literature Cited List
Only include references that have been cited in the body of the paper should be included in your reference list.
Entries are listed in alphabetical order by the name of the first author’s last name (or, if there is no known author, by organization name or by the title of the work). Ignore "a", "an", and "the" at the beginning of a title when alphabetizing. The year is placed after the last author’s name, followed by a period.
Organization/group as author: Where you used an abbreviated form of an organization's name for the in-text citation, include the abbreviation in square brackets as the first part of the citation in your reference list, e.g., [CLA] Canadian Lung Association.
Authors’ names: List authors’ last names, followed by initials for first and middle names. Do not use periods or spaces between the initials. Do not use a comma between the last name and the initials, e.g., Smith BL. Include all authors’ names if a work has up to ten authors; for a work with eleven or more authors, list the first ten names followed by a comma and “et al.” (which means “and others”). For works with two authors, do not use “and” or “&” to separate the authors’ names.
Multiple citations by same author: If you are citing more than one item by the same author(s), list works in chronological order (oldest first).
If you are including works by a particular author as both a single author and as a coauthor, list the the items published individually first. List the multi-author publications in alphabetical order by the second author's last name.
Formatting titles: Do not italicize or underline the titles of books or journals.
Titles of books and articles: Only the first letter of the title’s first word and any proper nouns should
be capitalized. Do not enclose article titles in quotation marks.
Titles of journals: Abbreviate the titles of any journals that consist of more than one word. Omit
articles, conjunctions, and prepositions (e.g., the, and, of). Do not use apostrophes. Capitalize all the
words or abbreviated words in the title.
N Engl J Med
To find abbreviations:
CalTech ISI Journal Title Abbreviations:
Frontiers In Bioscience: Journal Name Abbreviation, ISSN Number and Coverage:
NLM Catalog: Journals referenced in the NCBI Databases
Edition: Include edition information where provided, abbreviated as "ed."
New rev. ed.
3rd Am. ed.
Page ranges: Include page ranges for articles in journals/magazines/newspapers and for chapters in books. When an article appears on discontinuous pages, list all pages or page ranges, separated by commas, e.g., 145-149, 162-174. For chapters in books, use the abbreviation “p.” before the numbers (p. 63-90).
No date of publication: Use the abbreviation [date unknown]. Exception: When citing electronic publications (e.g., websites), use the dates of update/revision (or both) instead.
More than one city of publication: Use the first one listed.