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Chicago Manual of Style   Tags: avoid_plagiarism, chicago_style, citation, citing, endnote, in-text, sources, works_cited  

This guide will help you with formatting your citations according to the Chicago Manual of Style guidelines.
Last Updated: Jun 9, 2017 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates

H. E-Book Print Page

About Citing Books

This guide is intended to cover only the Notes and Bibliography system for citing books.

For each type of source in this guide, both the general form and a specific example will be provided.

The following format will be used:

Full Note - use the first time that you cite a source.

Concise Note - use after the first time you cite a source.

Bibliography - use when you are compiling the Bibliography that appears at the end of your paper.

Information on citing and several of the examples were drawn from The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.). 


E-Book (p. 684-686)

The Chicago Manual of Style suggests including the format or edition of an e-book when listing it on a reference list.  The majority of electronically published books offered for download from a library or bookseller will have a printed counterpart. Because of the potential for differences, however, authors must indicate that they have consulted a format other than print.

For example, according to the manual's Web site, a copy of Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice accessed on a Kindle might be cited as:

Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2007), Kindle edition.


Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2008), Microsoft Reader e-book, chap. 23.

E-books are generally referenced in the same way as other books. The general format provided below refers to a basic one author e-book. If you are using an e-book that has multiple authors, includes an edition number, etc., please refer to the appropriate section in this guide. Include information on the format of the resource near the end of the footnote or bibliography entry, as per the example below.

General Format 

        Full Note: 
            1. Author First Name/Initial Surname, Book Title: Subtitle (Place of Publication:
      Publisher, Year), Format, page #.
      Concise Note: 
            2. Author Surname, Book Title, page #. 
      Author Surname, First Name or Initial. Book Title: Subtitle. Place of Publication:
            Publisher, Year. Format.
      Full Note:
            1. Hal Hellman, Great Feuds in Science: Ten of the Liveliest Disputes Ever (New
      York: John Wiley, 1998), Net Library e-book, 52.
      Concise Note:
            2. Hellman, Great Feuds in Science, 52.
      Hellman, Hal. Great Feuds in Science: Ten of the Liveliest Disputes Ever. New York:
            John Wiley, 1998. Net Library e-book.

General Formatting

The CMOS footnote system uses superscript numbers. These numbers should be placed at the end of the sentence (or clause) in which the cited material appears. Use your software's formatting menu to change the number to a superscript.

CMOS footnotes and endnotes should be detailed on first references; second and later references then take a short form that uses either the author’s name and a page number or the Latin term ibid and a page number if needed.

Ask your instructor what kind of notes you should use.

  1. Footnotes are placed at the bottom of each page.
  2. Endnotes are placed at the end of the paper.


Word-processing software supports either approach.

CMOS lists of references should be alphabetized by the author’s surname, and can be presented as a “Bibliography” page that includes all sources you consulted, or as a “References” or “Works Cited” page that includes only the sources in your footnotes.

 Ask your instructor what your list of references should include—all the sources you consulted, or only those you cite in the paper?


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