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Chicago Manual of Style   Tags: avoid_plagiarism, chicago_style, citation, citing, endnote, in-text, sources, works_cited  

This guide will help you with formatting your citations according to the Chicago Manual of Style guidelines.
Last Updated: Jun 9, 2017 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates

Guidelines Print Page

General Guidelines

Guidelines presented in this guide are based on the The Chicago Manual of Style (15th ed.).  Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the manual.

Tip: All sources of information and data (quoted directly or paraphrased) are cited with a note in the body of the paper (In-Text).  It is also included as an entry in the bibliography compiled at the end of your paper. (p. 594)


Chicago Style Guide


Tips: How to Format Notes and Bibliograhy

Formatting Your Paper

For Chicago Style publication, pay close attention to the formatting guidelines. All papers should be double-spaced and should have margins of at least one inch on both sides and at the top and bottom of every page. All pages should be numbered except preliminary pages, including pages of notes and works cited pages. The page number should be placed at the top of the page either in the center or justified to the right margin.

Notation In-Text: Foot Notes

Long quotations should be set off from the regular text. Quotes of poetry of three or more lines and prose quotations of two or more sentences or eight or more lines should be set off. The quotations should be indented four spaces from the left margin. Single-space the quotation but double-space above and below the quotation. When you set off a quotation from the text, do not use quotation marks.

Numbers in the text are written as superscript numbers (small numbers raised to the top of line).  When included at the bottom of the page, note numbers are full size and followed by a period. Notes should be numbered consecutively, beginning with 1.  If you use a word processing software, set up the "footnote" feature for note formatting. (p. 600)

The first note referring to a work must be followed by a full note.  Any following citations for that work can be shortened.  The shortened form should include  information for readers to find the full title or direct them to the bibliography. (p. 603-605) 

E.g.  1. Barton Glick, The Dirt of Babylon (New York: Prudence, 2010), 15.

2. Glick, The Dirt, 15.

When you are citing the same source in consecutive footnotes, cite the source in full the first time, and then use "Ibid." for all subsequent citations until another source breaks references cited.  After a second source has been cited, the first source must be cited in the footnote in full the next time it is referenced.  (p. 605)   

E.g.  . Glick, The Dirt, 15.

Bibliography Page

Chicago Style uses endnote and footnotes to document sources as well as an optional works cited page. Footnote and endnotes should be marked using consecutive superscript numerals in the text. Numbering should be used for publication information or for additional explanation or notes that would interrupt the fluidity of the text if inserted.

  • Notes should be listed at the bottom of the page if footnoted and at the end of the paper if endnoted.
  • Notes should be single-spaced within the same note and double-spaced between individual notes.
  • Begin the note with the author's first and last name; then list the title; and then give the publishing information and page numbers. [e.g.
  • Peter Holman, The History of the Raj: Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (New York: Dorset Press, 1996), 18.]

There are some differences in the formatting of the bibliographic references and the notes. The notes have authors' names in the order of first name followed by last name while the bibliography will invert the author's name. Please see below for examples of bibliographic references.

The bibliography page should be entitled "Bibliography," "Selected Bibliography," "Works Cited," or "References."
Start the bibliographic entry flush with the left margin, and indent all the other lines in the entry. The entire bibliographic references page should be double-spaced.

Titles of books and periodicals should be italicized; quotation marks should be used for parts of books or articles in periodicals, and the publisher information should not be abbreviated.

  • All bibliography entries are formatted with a hanging indent. (example on p. 627)
  • List bibliography entries alphabetically by the surname of the first author or by title if there is no author.  (p. 612)
  • Use the author's given names and surname as listed on the title page, not the cover. For works with more than one author, list them in the order used on the title page. (p. 648-649)
  • If you use more than two entries by the same author(s) in the bibliography, list them alphabetically by title. A  3-em dash (—.) replaces the author's name after the first entry. (p. 614-615) What is a 3-em dash?  Em dashes — because they are the width of the character m — are used for emphasis or interruption. The 3-em dash (which is the width of three m's in the corresponding font) most frequently appears in a bibliography when an author's name is cited more than once.
      E.g. Squire, Larry R. “The Hippocampus and the Neuropsychology of Memory.” In Neurobiology of the Hippocampus, edited
                     by W. Seifert, 491-511. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.
                         — — —. Memory and Brain. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

2. Ibid., 15.      


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