A. One Author or EditorB. Two Authors or EditorsC. Three to Five Authors or EditorsD. Chapter in an Edited Book or TextbookE. Entry in a dictionary or encyclopediaF. No AuthorG. E-BookH. Edition other than the FirstI. TranslationJ. Government Publication
A. Journal Article with One AuthorB. Journal Article with Two AuthorsC. Journal Article with 3 - 6 AuthorsD. Journal Article with more than 7 authorsE. Magazine ArticleF. Newspaper ArticleG. Article from a DatabaseH. Google Scholar
A. Basic Web PageB. University / College WebpageC. No AuthorD. Blog postE. Online Reference EntryF. Online Government DocumentG. Document from a WebsiteH. Wikis
A. Motion PictureB. YouTube VideoC. Podcast
A. Electronic ImageB. FiguresC. Photographs and Maps
A. InterviewB. EmailC. Religious and Classical WorksD. Secondary SourcesE. Lectures / Course MaterialsF. Archival WorksG. Tweets & FacebookH. Personal Communication
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This is the "In-Text Citations" page of the "APA Citation Style" guide.
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No Author

In-Text Citation Example


In the text, For All Practical Purposes (2003)

Parenthetical Citation Example


Plagiarism is described .... ("Student Handbook," 2008)

Explanation


When there is no author, your in-text and parenthetical citations should begin with the first couple words of the title and include the year of publication. When citing books, videos, brochures, journals, reports, etc., italicize the title. When citing web pages, journal article titles, or chapter titles, use quotation marks around the title.

More Information: See page 176 of the APA Manual 6th edition.
 

Quotations

Incorporate a short quotation (fewer than 40 words) into the text of your essay and enclose the quotation in double quotation marks.

            Miele (1993) found that "the placebo effect, which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when only the first group's behaviors were studied in this manner" (p. 225).

Display a quotation of 40 or more words in a freestanding block of typewritten lines and omit the quotation marks.

            Miele (1993) found the following:

                           The placebo effect, which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner. Furthermore, the behaviors were never exhibited again, even  when real drugs were administered.  Earlier studies were clearly    premature in  attributing the results to a placebo effect (p. 255).

Direct Quotations from Online Sources Without Pagination

Online documents often do not provide page numbers.  If the document does not give page numbers but gives paragraph numbers, include them using the abbreviation para.

e.g. (para. 4).

If the document "includes headings and neither paragraph nor page numbers are visible, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following it to direct the reader to the location of the quoted material".

e.g. (Discussion section, para. 1).

"In some cases in which no page or paragraph numbers are visible, headings may be too unwieldy to cite in full.  Instead, use a short title enclosed in quotation marks for the parenthetical citation."

e.g. (Golan, Kuchler, & Krissof, 2007, "Mandatory Labeling Has Targeted", para. 4).

(The heading was "Mandatory Labeling Has Targeted Information Gaps and Social Objectives.")

(Publication manual, 2010, p. 172)

 

Multiple Authors in the Same Citation

Example

Several studies report ... (D'Esposito & Gardner, 1999; Griffiths & Brophy, 2005; Kim & Sin, 2007).

Explanation

Multiple sources within the same parenthetical citation should be listed alphabetically by author. Separate each citation with a semicolon.
 

Citing Secondary Sources

What is a secondary source?

A secondary source is a citation or reference you discovered in a book, article, or other item that discusses information found in an original source. 

Example

Jacobson describes nursing theories .... (as cited in Nihart, 1999).

Explanation

Use sparingly!! Secondary sources should only be used when the original source (or primary source) cannot be located. The original work should be named in the body of your paper. In parentheses begin with "as cited in". Then, add the last name of the author of the secondary source followed by the year of publication. Be sure to include a comma between the author's name and the publication date. End with a period if at the end of a sentence.
 
More Information: See page 178 in the APA 6th edition for further explanation.
 

In-text Citations

Ensure you document your sources throughout the text of your assignment or paper by citing the sources used in your research by author and date. This identifies the source of the information you used for readers and provides accurate information for them to locate the source of information in the alphabetical reference list you are required to create at the end of your work.

Throughout the assignment or paper, you must include a properly formatted parenthetical reference (author and the year) except when it is within the same paragraph. Within a paragraph, you do not need to include the year in subsequent references to a source.

e.g.

In 2000, Smith compared reaction times ...  OR

Smith (2000) compared reaction times ...  OR

In a recent study of reaction times (Smith, 2000) ...  

When PARAPHRASING or referring to an idea contained in another work (secondary or indirect source), APA citation style encourages you to “provide a page or paragraph number, especially when it would help an interested reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.” (APA Publication Manual, 2010, p. 171).

 Where there are TWO AUTHORS, include both names each time the reference appears in the text.

e.g.

The most recent study (Smith & Gates, 1983) ...  

When there are THREE TO FIVE AUTHORS, cite all names the first time.

From then on, use only the first name followed by et al. (Latin abbreviation for "and others"). 

e.g.

First citation: Keaney, Smith, Jones and Hajid (1972)  argue that ...

Later citations: Keaney et al. (1972) also argued that ...  

When there are SIX OR MORE AUTHORS, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year for all citations in text.

e.g.

First citation: Smith et al. (2012) demonstrated that ...

Later citations: ... as has been shown by Smith et al. (2012).

Write in full, the whole name of a GROUP OR ORGANIZATION THAT SERVES AS AUTHOR every time, unless the abbreviation is well known.

e.g.

First citation: The police report (Royal Canadian Mounted Police, 2015) ...

Later citations: The RCMP report (2015) ...

 Where there is NO AUTHOR, include the first few words of the title and the date.

Put quotation marks around an article title,; however, italicize the title of a periodical  or book. Words in the title are capitalized in reference citations; however, not in the reference list.
 

e.g.

A Time magazine article ("Dealing with Politics," 1988) said that ...

It states in the Cranbrook Municipal Social Directory (1988) ...

When there are TWO OR MORE AUTHORS WITH THE SAME SURNAME, include initials to avoid confusion for the reader..
 

e.g.

Both G. A. Smith (1984) and B. W. Johansson(1986) have studied ...

PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS (e.g., emails, memos, private letters, telephone  conversations, personal interviews. etc.) do not provide recoverable data.  They are  cited in the text only, not in the reference list.  Provide the communicator’s initials   and surname and as exact a date as possible.

e.g.

The methodology is based on neuroscientific research and

 demonstrates that it is possible   to help students strengthen the

 weak cognitive capacities underlying their learning dysfunctions

 (Q. Martins, personal communication, May 18, 2011).

 When the DATE IS UNKNOWN, use the abbreviation ‘n.d.’ – for ‘no date’.

e.g.

Barnard (n.d.) shows that …

 

TIP: In-text Citations

Parenthetical documentation or in-text citations tells the reader where you are using information found from reliable and authoritative sources.  You are indicating that any and all information used in that section of your paper is NOT common knowledge but is summarized or directly quoted from someone else's work.

This is more obvious when you are directly quoting from a source, but it is also needed when you have summarized or paraphrased from a source or if you got an idea from somewhere else - interview, podcast, online, etc.. 

We encourage students to learn how to avoid plagiarism and cite all words and ideas that you found from other sources.

APA style writing requires you to put the information about the source in parentheses in the text or body of your paper. APA does not use a footnotes to indicate source information at the bottom of the page nor endnotes at the end of your paper - that is MLA formatting.  In APA writing style:
 

  • Give the author’s last name and the publication year.
  • Only use page numbers for a direct quote.
  • Make sure the source information in parentheses matches with your reference list. 
  • The punctuation for the sentence is placed AFTER the parenthesis.
  • If your quote is longer than forty words, format it with block text by beginning a new line, indenting one inch, and do not add quotation marks.  At the end of the quote put the period after the last word of the sentence followed by the in-text citation in parentheses.
More Information: See pages 174-179 of the APA Manual 6th edition for further explanation and examples.
 

More In-text Citation Examples

Quote with author's name (with signal phrase)

Example:

Smith (2006) states that, "..." (p. 112).


Quote with author's name (in parentheses following the sentence)

Example:

This is quoted as, "…" (Smith, 2006, pp. 112-4).


Paraphrasing with author's name (with signal phrase)

Example:

Smith (2006) stated these facts, too.


No author – give title of work abbreviated to first major word. Italics for books; "quotation marks" for articles

Example:

This book is true (Long, 2005). 
This article is true ("Long," 2005).  


Citing entire website – put URL of website homepage

Example:

This has evidence (www.pubmed.gov).


Quote from website – use paragraph number

Example:

According to, "…" (Smith, 2000, para. 4).


More than one author with same last name

Example:

P. L. Smith (2003) and J. M. Smith (2005)


Source has more than one author (with signal phrase)

Example:

Smith and Lee agree that (2006)


Citing more than one work

Example:

We all agree (Smith, 2006; Lee, 2004).


Source has more than one author (in parentheses following the sentence)

Example:

This is agreed upon (Smith & Long, 2006).


Citing more than one work by same author published in the same year

Example:

We all agree (Smith, 2006a; Smith, 2006b; Smith, 2006c)

Smith (2006a) believes .....

It has been reported ... (Smith, 2006c)

 

In-text and Parenthetical Citation Styles

One Author

First In-Text Citation  

Johnson (2008)

Subsequent In-Text Citations

Johnson (2009)

First Parenthetical Citation

(Johnson, 2007)

Subsequent Parenthetical Citations

(Johnson, 2007)

Two Authors

First In-Text Citation  

Smith and Jones (2009)

Subsequent In-Text Citations

Smith and Jones (2009)

First Parenthetical Citation

(Smith & Jones, 2009)

Subsequent Parenthetical Citations

(Smith & Jones, 2009)

Three to Five Authors

First In-Text Citation

Carlson, Rodriguez, and Inez (2004)

Subsequent In-Text Citations

Carlson et al. (2004)

First Parenthetical Citation

(Carlson, Rodriguez, & Inez, 2004)

Subsequent Parenthetical Citations

(Carlson et al., 2004)

Six Authors

First In-Text Citation

Walsh et al. (2000)

Subsequent In-Text Citations

Walsh et al. (2000)

First Parenthetical Citation

(Walsh et al., 2000)

Subsequent Parenthetical Citations

(Walsh et al., 2000)

Group Authors with Identifiable Abbreviations

First In-Text Citation  

The College of the Rockies (COTR, 2006)

Subsequent In-Text Citations

COTR (2006)

First Parenthetical Citation

(The College of the Rockies [COTR], 2006)

Subsequent Parenthetical Citations

(COTR, 2006)

Group Authors without Indentifiable Abbrevations

First In-Text Citation

University of British Columbia

Subsequent In-Text Citations

University of British Columbia (2007)

First Parenthetical Citation

(University of British Columbia, 2007)

Subsequent Parenthetical Citations 

(University of British Columbia, 2007)

 

Emails, Interviews, Telephone Conversations, Etc.

Example

(J. A. Smith, personal communication, January 3, 2007) OR J. A. Smith (personal communication, January 3, 2007)

Explanation

Emails, non-archived discussion groups, letters, memos, telephone conversations, and personal interviews are considered personal communications in APA. This type of communication can be difficult to provide recoverable data; therefore, these types of communication are not included in the Reference list. Cite personal communications within the body of your paper only.
 
More Information: See page 179 in the APA Manual, 6th edition for further explanation.
 

Formatting In-Text Citations

In-text citations are used in the body ("in the text") of research papers or assignments when you use information from sources.

In-text citations are used to provide the reader with:

  • information about the ideas and arguments you are making from the sources you used
  • which sources in the References page you refer 
  • the date the information was published
  • the page where the ideas and arguments to which you are referring are located in your source

Note: Except for a few sources (like interviews which are considered undiscoverable), an in-text citation must have a matching source on the Reference page.


Direct Quote (pp.170-171)

When you cite a direct quote in the text of your paper, include the page number:

Johnson (2010, p. 27) indicates that, “kennels are effective in training dogs when used consistently, respectfully, and thoughtfully.”


Remember that “your dog will respond to consistent training efforts"  (Johnson, 2010, p. 27).

When a quotation is 40 words or more, omit quotation marks and use a block format in which the quotation is indented about ½ inch (or 5 spaces) from the left margin.  For more information on formatting block quotes, consult this APA Blog entry. For more information on citing direct quotes, consult this APA Blog entry.


Summary or Paraphrase (p.171)

Even if you put information in your own words by summarizing or paraphrasing, you must still cite the source:

Within the context of training, kennels are best used to create a zone where your dog can be safe. (Johnson, 2010, p. 27).

Note: For summaries and paraphrases, the inclusion of page numbers is optional. (On the other hand, your instructor may require or prefer that page numbers be included.)


Page Numbers Unavailable (pp.171-172)

When a resource has no page numbers, you must indicate the paragraph number.  If the paragraph number is not visible, cite the heading with the paragraph number following it:

Smith (2008, para. 5) stated that "the right amount of discipline..."


You Have Not Seen the Original Source  (p.178)

Use the words “as cited in” to indicate that you have not read the original research:

Walter’s 1942 study (as cited in Stubbs, 2001) found that monkeys mimicked gestures of researchers.

For more information about in-text citation in APA style, consult the APA blog.

Learn More

The Online Writing Lab at Purdue University offers an online resource which can be used in some cases.  However, it does not include everything required for citing sources in one place.

The APA citation style does not cover Canadian government sources, and has only a limited section on American government resources.

Please refer to the staff at the Library Reference Desk for clarification when citing Canadian government sources.

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