A. One Author or EditorB. Two Authors or EditorsC. Three to Five Authors or EditorsD. Chapter in an Edited Book or TextbookE. Entry in a dictionary or encyclopediaF. No AuthorG. E-BookH. Edition other than the FirstI. TranslationJ. Government Publication
A. Journal Article with One AuthorB. Journal Article with Two AuthorsC. Journal Article with 3 - 6 AuthorsD. Journal Article with more than 7 authorsE. Magazine ArticleF. Newspaper ArticleG. Article from a DatabaseH. Google Scholar
A. Basic Web PageB. University / College WebpageC. No AuthorD. Blog postE. Online Reference EntryF. Online Government DocumentG. Document from a WebsiteH. Wikis
A. Motion PictureB. YouTube VideoC. Podcast
A. Electronic ImageB. FiguresC. Photographs and Maps
A. InterviewB. EmailC. Religious and Classical WorksD. Secondary SourcesE. Lectures / Course MaterialsF. Archival WorksG. Tweets & FacebookH. Personal Communication
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A. Motion Picture Print Page

About Citing Audiovisual Media

To cite audiovisual media note the author (or artist or performer), the title, publisher and date of publication.

For each type of source in this guide, both the general form and a specific example will be provided.

The following format will be used:

In-Text Citation - entry that appears in the body of your paper.

References - entry that appears at the end of your paper.


Motion Picture/Video Recording (p. 209)

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Producer Surname & Director Surname, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Producer Surname & Director Surname, Year)


Producer Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Producer), & Director Surname, First Initial.

         Second Initial. (Director). (Year). Title of movie [Format e.g. Motion picture or DVD].

         Country where movie was produced: Name of Studio.


In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Fonda & Lumet, 1957)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Fonda & Lumet, 1957)


Fonda, H. (Producer), & Lumet, S. (Director). (1957). 12 angry men

[Motion picture]. United States of America: Orion-Nova Productions.

Learn More

The Online Writing Lab at Purdue University offers an online resource which can be used in some cases.  However, it does not include everything required for citing sources in one place.

The APA citation style does not cover Canadian government sources, and has only a limited section on American government resources.

Please refer to the staff at the Library Reference Desk for clarification when citing Canadian government sources.


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