A. One Author or EditorB. Two Authors or EditorsC. Three to Five Authors or EditorsD. Chapter in an Edited Book or TextbookE. Entry in a dictionary or encyclopediaF. No AuthorG. E-BookH. Edition other than the FirstI. TranslationJ. Government Publication
A. Journal Article with One AuthorB. Journal Article with Two AuthorsC. Journal Article with 3 - 6 AuthorsD. Journal Article with more than 7 authorsE. Magazine ArticleF. Newspaper ArticleG. Article from a DatabaseH. Google Scholar
A. Basic Web PageB. University / College WebpageC. No AuthorD. Blog postE. Online Reference EntryF. Online Government DocumentG. Document from a WebsiteH. Wikis
A. Motion PictureB. YouTube VideoC. Podcast
A. Electronic ImageB. FiguresC. Photographs and Maps
A. InterviewB. EmailC. Religious and Classical WorksD. Secondary SourcesE. Lectures / Course MaterialsF. Archival WorksG. Tweets & FacebookH. Personal Communication
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Citing Articles

Articles are found in journals, magazines, and newspapers. However, it can be confusing to find articles because journals and magazines are also called periodicals.  During your studies you will be accessing electronic and print articles. The most difficult task when citing articles is establishing what type and format you are using.

  • Do you have an online journal article? 
  • Is it an article from a print journal?
  • Is your article from a magazine or newspaper?
  • Is it an article found in a database licensed by your library?

Journals are generally scholarly (often referred to as academic or peer-reviewed), and magazines are commonly more for general use.

 

DOIs and Article References (pp. 188-192)

If a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is listed on either a print or an electronic source, it must be included in the reference list. A DOI is a unique alphanumeric code that identifies a certain source.   

Example: doi:87.1678/16076320414622005

The DOI is commonly found on the first page of an article. For more information on DOIs and sample pictures indicating where to locate a DOI on a source, see pages 188 to 192 of the APA Manual.

The DOI flow chart created by APA  staff is very useful. To learn more about DOIs see the tuturial video created by APA.

 

Journal Article with Two Authors

When a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is listed on the journal article or in the database record, include it in your reference.  If no DOI, use the Free DOI Lookup  from CrossRef.org to find the article's DOI.

If you have accessed a journal article on the Internet, and if there is no DOI, then give the URL of the journal's website.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):
 
(Author Surname & Author Surname, Year)
 
 
In-Text Citation (Quotation):
 
(Author Surname & Author Surname, Year, page number)
 
 
References:
 
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial.
 
         (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue), page range. 
 
         doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of journal home page [if available]
 
Example 1 (Print)
 
 
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Paterson & Thorne, 2003)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Paterson & Thorne, 2003, p. 30)

References:
 
Paterson, B. L., & Thorne, S. (2003). Enhancing the evaluation of nursing care
 
         effectiveness. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 35(3), 26-38.

Example 2 (Online)
 
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):
 
(Sillick & Schutte, 2006)
 
In-Text Citation (Quotation):
 
(Sillick & Schutte, 2006, p. 43)
 
References:
 
Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem
 
         mediate between perceived early parental love and  adult happiness. E-Journal of
 
         Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. doi: 10.7790/ejap.v2i2.71
 

Article with Multiple Authors

For articles with mutilple authors see the APA Manual for details. (p. 198)

For example, if an article has more than seven authors, list the names of the first six authors followed by ... and then the last author's name in the reference entry (p. 198).

Learn More

The Online Writing Lab at Purdue University offers an online resource which can be used in some cases.  However, it does not include everything required for citing sources in one place.

The APA citation style does not cover Canadian government sources, and has only a limited section on American government resources.

Please refer to the staff at the Library Reference Desk for clarification when citing Canadian government sources.

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