A. One Author or EditorB. Two Authors or EditorsC. Three to Five Authors or EditorsD. Chapter in an Edited Book or TextbookE. Entry in a dictionary or encyclopediaF. No AuthorG. E-BookH. Edition other than the FirstI. TranslationJ. Government Publication
A. Journal Article with One AuthorB. Journal Article with Two AuthorsC. Journal Article with 3 - 6 AuthorsD. Journal Article with more than 7 authorsE. Magazine ArticleF. Newspaper ArticleG. Article from a DatabaseH. Google Scholar
A. Basic Web PageB. University / College WebpageC. No AuthorD. Blog postE. Online Reference EntryF. Online Government DocumentG. Document from a WebsiteH. Wikis
A. Motion PictureB. YouTube VideoC. Podcast
A. Electronic ImageB. FiguresC. Photographs and Maps
A. InterviewB. EmailC. Religious and Classical WorksD. Secondary SourcesE. Lectures / Course MaterialsF. Archival WorksG. Tweets & FacebookH. Personal Communication
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This is the "Guidelines" page of the "APA Citation Style" guide.
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This guide will help you with formatting your citations according to the APA guidelines.
Last Updated: Jun 9, 2017 URL: http://cotr.libguides.com/apa Print Guide RSS Updates

Guidelines Print Page

General Guidelines

All sources of information and data, whether quoted directly or paraphrased, are cited with parenthetical references in the text of your paper (p. 170).

      Example: (Walker, 2003).

All sources used in your paper are included in a References list.

Double-space your entire paper, including the References list (which is also formatted with hanging indentation) and any block quotes (pp.171, 180).

Create a Running Head for your paper. (pp. 229, 230)


Basic APA Formatting Tutorial Part 1


Basic APA Formatting Tutorial Part 2


APA Style Guides at COTR Library

Cover Art
Cites and Sources
Call Number: CIRC-RESV
An essential guide for social and behavioural science students, and this fourth edition has been updated to reflect ongoing changes in APA formatting, particularly in electronic formats.

Cover Art
Mastering APA Style
Call Number: CIRC-RESV
A hands-on guide for learning the style rules of the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association.

Cover Art
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
Call Number: CIRC-RESV
Presents a style manual that covers manuscript structure and content, writing style, grammar, quotations, tables, footnotes, results display, and source citation for psychological and social sciences literature.


Where to Begin

Whenever you consult a source while conducting research you must gather specific information about that source to create accurate and full citations.

For Books

  • full name(s) of author(s) or editor(s)
  • full title of the book
  • facts of publication: city, publisher, latest copyright date
  • edition name or number, if there’s more than one
  • if applicable, name of series, volume number, and total volumes in the series
  • original publication information of any reprinted work
  • if using a specific section (introduction, forward, etc.), title and author of that section
  • page number(s) for information read or noted

(in addition, if you accessed an electronic book—or eBook—online:)

      • name of the website or database where you found the book (or excerpt)
      • if not from a database, the url (starts with http://)
      • date you accessed the book
      • a DOI (digital object identifier), if available

For Periodical Articles (journals, magazines, or newspapers)

  • full name(s) of author(s)
  • full title of the article
  • full title of the journal, magazine, or newspaper
  • facts of publication: publication date, and, if applicable, volume and issue numbers
  • starting and ending page number(s) for the article
  • original publication information of any reprinted work
  • page number(s) for information noted

(in addition, if you accessed the article online:)

      • name of website or database where you found the article
      • if not from a database, the url (starts with http://)
      • date you accessed the article
      • a DOI (digital object identifier), if available

For Websites
Web pages are often inconsistent about this information; ask a librarian for help if you have trouble locating it.

    • full name(s) of author(s) and/or sponsor(s) of the site
    • title of the website
    • original publication information of any reprinted work
    • date the website was last updated
    • date you accessed the website
    • url address (starts with http://)

Tips: References list

Include all of the sources cited in your paper. The only exceptions to this rule are personal communications (emails, letters, etc.) and classical works (Bible, Qur'an, etc.) which are cited in the text of your paper but are not included in the References (p.174).

  • Inlcude only the sources cited in your paper.  In order for a source to be included in your References, it must be cited in the text of your paper( p.174).

  • Arrange References in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author or, if there is no author, by the first word in the title (pp.181-183).

  • If the References includes two or more works by the same author, list them in chronological order with the earliest first (p. 182).

  • Italicize book titles, journal titles, and volume numbers. Do not italicize the titles of or issue numbers of journal articles.

  • Double space the References (p.180).

  • Format each entry with a hanging indent (p. 180).

  • Use only the initial(s) of the author’s first and second names. (p.184).

  • When a URL divides between two lines, manually break it before a slash or dash (p.192).

APA Formatting Using Word for Mac 2011

Check out this guide from Pepperdine University in California to learn how to format your papers using Office for Mac 2011.

Learn More

The Online Writing Lab at Purdue University offers an online resource which can be used in some cases.  However, it does not include everything required for citing sources in one place.

The APA citation style does not cover Canadian government sources, and has only a limited section on American government resources.

Please refer to the staff at the Library Reference Desk for clarification when citing Canadian government sources.


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