A. One Author or EditorB. Two Authors or EditorsC. Three to Five Authors or EditorsD. Chapter in an Edited Book or TextbookE. Entry in a dictionary or encyclopediaF. No AuthorG. E-BookH. Edition other than the FirstI. TranslationJ. Government Publication
A. Journal Article with One AuthorB. Journal Article with Two AuthorsC. Journal Article with 3 - 6 AuthorsD. Journal Article with more than 7 authorsE. Magazine ArticleF. Newspaper ArticleG. Article from a DatabaseH. Google Scholar
A. Basic Web PageB. University / College WebpageC. No AuthorD. Blog postE. Online Reference EntryF. Online Government DocumentG. Document from a WebsiteH. Wikis
A. Motion PictureB. YouTube VideoC. Podcast
A. Electronic ImageB. FiguresC. Photographs and Maps
A. InterviewB. EmailC. Religious and Classical WorksD. Secondary SourcesE. Lectures / Course MaterialsF. Archival WorksG. Tweets & FacebookH. Personal Communication
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This guide will help you with formatting your citations according to the APA guidelines.
Last Updated: Mar 22, 2017 URL: http://cotr.libguides.com/apa Print Guide RSS Updates

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About APA Style

American Psychological Association (APA) style is used for citing references you use for your papers in science and social science courses, such as:

  • Anthropology
  • Criminology
  • Communication
  • Nursing
  • Psychology
  • Social Work

APA style provides rules for formatting:

  • your essay as a whole: margins, indenting, etc.
  • references included in the body of your essay (in-text)
  • the reference list at the end of your essay (References)

The purpose of citing your references is to:

  • identify (cite) other people’s ideas and the information you use within your assignment, essay or term paper
  • avoid plagiarism 
  • allow the reader to find your research sources
  • provide evidence for your arguments and add credibility to your work

This online guide is based on the APA Manual (6th ed.), 2009.

Your instructor may give you specific instructions on format or style. Always make sure you follow your instructor's guidelines.


Instructors Requirements Differ!

Some instructors may have additional or specialized requirements for your citations.

For example, while the current MLA format does not require you to include the full URL in your citation, some instructors prefer that you do.

Always be aware of class requirements- check with your instructor if you're not sure!


Why Cite Sources

Check out this tutorial from UTSA Libraries!




Ask Us!

Learn More

The Online Writing Lab at Purdue University offers an online resource which can be used in some cases.  However, it does not include everything required for citing sources in one place.

The APA citation style does not cover Canadian government sources, and has only a limited section on American government resources.

Please refer to the staff at the Library Reference Desk for clarification when citing Canadian government sources.


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